In disease, vector-borne diseases are those transmitted by mosquitoes or other agents.
In mathematics, if you have a 2D plane, then a point on the plane can be labeled as (x, y). This is basically a vector, where you can also have vectors in higher dimensions, like (x, y, z) in 3D or (w, x, y, z) in 4D. There’s a simple rule for adding vectors, which is (2, 5) + (1, 3) = (2 + 1, 5 + 3) = (3, 8). Make sense? Vectors are important for a lot of higher maths, including machine learning.